HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Mon, 30 Nov 2020 01:40:25 GMT 色大佬

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

在过去的12个月里,这位22岁的T台女王兼真人秀明星赚得2200万美元,首次登顶福布斯模特收入榜。

Show MoreHide

n. 卷轴,目录 v. 卷动
单词unique 联想记忆:
Emerging market exports have been declining in dollar terms since October 2014, a far longer, if less extreme, losing streak than during the 2008-09 global financial crisis, as the first chart shows.

Among the major U.S. airlines, US Airways had the best holiday on-time performance, coming in fifth with 15.57 percent of its flights arriving late during Thanksgiving and Christmas. Meanwhile, American Airlines, with which US Airways plans to merge, was the fourth worst, with 19.7 percent of flights arriving late, according to FlightAware.
Self-driving cars, selfie sticks, drones, touchscreen devices, e-cigarettes, jetpacks, and many other things seem like fairly modern inventions. Indeed, most of their "inventors" list them as newly invented and even go as far as seeking patents. But the fact is, many of these "inventions" have already been in existence for quite some time. They may have earlier lookalikes that ended up not going into production or that went into limited production due to one reason or another. Some also made it into full production but were recalled due to poor sales.
“阅后即焚”社交网络的兴起

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

材料成本上涨 家具调价成定局

故事发生在1950年的伦敦,雷诺兹?伍德科克是一位知名缝匠。他挑剔的生活中走进了阿尔玛,她是一位充满主见的年轻女性,后来成为了雷诺兹的缪斯女神和爱人。
“我们做事情不是为了追求利润,我们做事情,是因为这些事情是正确和公正的,”库克咆哮道。他说,不管是为了人权、可再生能源还是为有特殊需求的人们提供帮助,“我不考虑该死的投资回报率”。“直截了当地跟你说,如果这是你考虑的硬性因素……那你还是把苹果股票卖了吧。”库克的语气严厉,毫不妥协,那是苹果员工或许永远不希望面对的一个声音。
2013年,公开表示移民改革对大公司有利的公司高管并不是只有可口可乐CEO穆泰康一人。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

12. 最有希望的迹象。有段时间,你会觉得现状已经改善了,人们可以公开大声谈及业内的歧视现象。维奥拉·戴维斯(Viola Davis)出来说话,詹妮弗·劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)公开谈起,自己比片中的合作男星片酬少。“我不想被视为‘难搞’或者‘被宠坏了’,”她在简报《伦尼》(Lenny)中为许多人发言,其中包括许多薪酬更低的人们。
4. Manufacturing won't save the economy.
Collins grew up in rural, apartheid-era South Africa in the 1970s. Her childhood inspired her to focus on empowering women living below the poverty line through grassroots efforts. The Wonderbag, which was inspired by watching her grandmother cook with cushions, uses heat retention technology to cook food for 8-12 hours without the need for additional fuel. Collins witnessed the benefits African women received from using Wonderbags, reducing the amount of time they spent collecting firewood. For every bag sold, another is donated to a household in Africa, and in the past four years, the Wonderbags have found themselves in 600,000 African homes. Collins has launched the Wonderbag in the U.S. on Amazon, and hopes to sell the products via other retailers by 2014.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Look no further than the title sponsor on their building—Smoothie King, a regional drink shop—to realize that the Pelicans have a serious relevancy problem. (By contrast, the NFL's Saints play in the Mercedes-Benz Superdome next door.)
  • 楼市泡沫来了吗?房价上涨消解中等收入含金量
  • 成长的故事:现代的巴黎郊区与20世纪70年代的旧金山,这两部影片以残酷的城市和无尽的热情,把成长为女人的可怕惊险之路变得戏剧化。
  • 楼市调控被挤出的资金 会流向股市吗?
  • 2018年楼市坐“过山车” 调控要松绑?
  • 凯特·温斯莱特(Kate Winslet)是另一位将其最佳女演员奖杯置于洗手间的英国演员。她因在2008年一部改编自本哈德·施林克(Bernhard Schlink)的小说《生死朗读》(The Reader)的同名影片中扮演一位集中营的看守而获此殊荣。
    South Korean activists vowed Tuesday to sneak copies of Hollywood satire "The Interview" across the border by propaganda balloon later this month, in defiance of North Korea's repeated threats.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 2015年建筑涂料产量恐难创新高, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

23家航空公司已完成制定“阶梯费率”退改签规则

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

买了15年的商品房 竟是经适房? 业主拒交差价

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • "No one really knows how (end times) would look and how God would bring it about," Cox said.
    Have some respect for those who are promoting your work and hosting you to remove the gum before the interview begins.
  • The blocks of flats which were up to 12 storeys high in the city of Wuhan are making way for a huge new business district including a 707-metre tall skyscraper.
    曼谷王者归来!
    Dachis says: The news just keeps getting worse for Mitsubishi. Low sales triggered a decision to pull out of the European market and if the levels of negative discussion are any indicator, 2013 doesn’t look to be any better.
    Behind the facade of many a New York City apartment building is the dissonant sound of residents complaining. The gripes that make their way to the inbox of my Ask Real Estate column offer a glimpse into how residents cope with the myriad irritations that come with living in cramped and costly homes. They include the co-op shareholder horrified by a neighbor’s rats’ nest; the parents whose building has barred them from using a stroller in the elevator; and the renter whose kitchen cabinets fell from the walls.
    54集电视连续剧《花千骨》绝对是刷爆朋友圈热门话题。2015年夏天播出以来,《花千骨》就名噪一时。这部由霍建华和赵丽颖主演的电视剧改编自Fresh果果的同名网络小说。这部改编电视剧颇具美感,中国水墨画风格的外景,加上盛世美颜的男女猪脚,成功吸引了80多万微博粉丝(《花千骨》电视剧官方微博)。该剧2015年6月首播,以女性的视角讲诉了一个孤儿成为女神的心路历程,以及她经历的旷世虐恋。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 政府补贴正日渐退出 LED照明行业面临四大变化
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 东鹏控股主要股东售股套现逾亿

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

深化生态文明体制改革。
20. Best Advice for Movie Lovers In August, the scholar Wheeler Winston Dixon sounded an alarm: “If you go on Amazon and you see some great black-and-white film, and it’s going for $3, or any kind of foreign or obscure film, buy it, because it’s going out of print, and they’re not going to put them back into print.” Tens of thousands of films that were on VHS never made the jump to DVD or to Blu-ray, Mr. Dixon warns. And the brave new world of downloads (a.k.a. electronic sell-through) — well, tune in next year.
西班牙IE商学院上演“帽子戏法”,在英国《金融时报》“在线MBA排行榜”上连续第三年夺冠。英国华威商学院(Warwick Business School)连续第三年排在亚军位置,英国杜伦大学商学院(Durham University Business School)首次跻身前三甲。
The public prosecutor has decided to release several individuals and will proceed with the prosecution of at least five others.
会。梅因为失算的提前选举而失去了大部分权威。但过去几个月情况对她较为有利。敲定退欧离婚协议,确保了她的饭碗短期无忧。因此直到2019年英国退欧正式完成(或者另一种更吸引人的替代方案出现)前,保守党将让她继续坐在首相位置上。留欧派和退欧派都希望避免因反对她而引发内战。事实将证明,曾经被人们认为是坐不长的位置,意外地能够坐久。
Anti-dumping cases were much easier to bring in the US than in the EU where companies first had to pass a public interest test.
['dev?steiti?]

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • E-cigarettes first started becoming popular in 2012. They work by heating a nicotine fluid to mimic a real cigarette. Their invention is usually credited to Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik, who reportedly created it after he dreamed that he was drowning in a cloud of vapor. His father had died of lung cancer caused by cigarettes. He himself was an unrepentant smoker who had unsuccessfully tried quitting by using a nicotine patch.
  • 通州区对口帮扶区域产业发展推介大会在通召开 助力蒙东三旗打赢脱贫攻坚战
  • Perhaps in response, at the start of 2017, China's media regulator quietly began including service fees charged by online ticketing companies when reporting box-office figures.
    The excavators think the cemetery datesback around 1,700 years, to a time when Kucha was vital to controlling the Western Frontiers (Xiyu) of China. Since the SilkRoad trade routes passed through the Western Frontiers, control of this key region was important to China's rulers.
  • 家居行业以“互联网思维”开阔销售模式
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 冲击奖项:很难相信斯特里普得不到最佳女主角提名,而汉克斯在销声匿迹几年后,早该获得一项表演类提名了。
    Inflation for consumers, meanwhile, ticked up slightly to 1.5 per cent, versus a five-year low of 1.4 per cent in November.
  • But Mr Stevenson said “this might reflect that the US is being bolder than the EU in protecting domestic steel producers”.
    Kobe Bryant really hasn't changed that much since high school, even though it's been 16 years since he's walked the halls of Lower Merion High School.
  • A meditation on love, loss and the meaning of life. Dog people and Lou Reed fans will be especially susceptible (I plead guilty on both counts), but anyone who ever had a heart is likely to succumb to Ms. Anderson’s ethereal wisdom and her fierce formal wit.
    信任感依然会是商业领域中唯一且最关键的问题。
  • 即将来到的投放是为了纪念南韩2010年沉船事件的第五周年,当时有46位船员死亡。南韩把责任归咎于北韩,并且很快的冻结了一切两韩之间的交易和投资纽带。
    社交网络公司Facebook 、电子商务巨头亚马逊和玩具公司乐高则是品牌价值增幅最大的企业。
    6. Miranda Lambert “Platinum” (RCA Nashville) Ms. Lambert went from plucky upstart to glittery country royalty in next to no time, but with “Platinum,” her best album, she walks that line with breezy authority. By turns sentimental and profane, with an ideal ratio of gloss to grit, it’s a reminder of her irreducible strengths, and a dare to anyone who’d undervalue them.
  • Meanwhile, New Yorkers living in the city’s nearly one million rent-stabilized apartments should brace for a fight in Albany in June, when the rent-stabilization law expires. Housing advocates hope to see a reversal of a rule that allows landlords to deregulate vacant units if the rent reaches $2,500 a month.
    China's movie box office revenue grew 9 percent to $8.9 billion (RMB 60.98 billion) in 2018.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 佛山老赖企业平均欠债近300万 12家家具企业上榜 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

湖南长沙:多部门联合执法 上千家问题中介停业整顿

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

洋品牌家具入驻中国市场 本土品牌压力大

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

中国民用航空局局长冯正霖:大兴机场2021年实现吞吐量4500万人次

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

北京市住建委:7家房地产经纪机构 违规发布房源信息被查处

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 克里斯托弗诺兰的这部二战题材电影可能就是最佳影片的领跑者。
  • “我只是想保持专业的一面。我不想让别人认为我是脑残粉。我是表演嘉宾之一,不仅仅是伴舞者,我是一名舞者演员。”
  • 定制家具 O2O模式迎合消费习惯

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 芝加哥大学的一个研究小组制造了一种能够向大脑传递信号的假手来解决这个问题。他们以猴子为测试对象,研究动物大脑对触摸信号的反应。当装备了可以刺激大脑的假手后,那些猴子的反应就好像他们身体接触到了物体一样。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 一个坐牢的诈骗高手爱上狱友并多次越狱,这看起来只能是小说情节,但却多少是斯蒂文·杰伊·拉塞尔的真人真事。与金·凯瑞饰演的电影主角一样,拉塞尔最初因诈骗入狱。他的男朋友吉米得了艾滋病,为了陪他,拉塞尔逃脱了这次刑罚。两年后拉塞尔被抓回监狱,不久吉米就去世了。
    考察指标包括“智力资本和创新”、“技术成熟度”、“区域重要城市”、“健康、安全与治安”、“交通和城市规划”、“可持续发展与自然环境”、“文化与居民生活”、“经济影响力”、“成本”和“宜商环境”。
    4. 《卡罗尔》(Carol)。这是托德·海因斯(Todd Haynes)第一次执导不由自己编剧的影片,编剧菲丽丝·奈吉(Phyllis Nagy)简化了派翠西亚·海史密斯(Patricia Highsmith)的小说原著,海因斯藉此再次证明,电影导演不必依靠拍自己亲自写的剧本才能成为伟大导演,这个真理却遭到许多雄心勃勃或功成名就的导演忽略。
  • After months have passed without a culprit in her daughter's murder case, Mildred Hayesmakes a bold move, painting three signs leading into her town with a controversial message directed at William Willoughby, the town's revered chief of police. When his second-in-command Officer Dixon, an immature mother's boy with a penchant for violence, gets involved, the battle between Mildred and Ebbing's law enforcement is only exacerbated.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 镜头切换到《爱乐之城》的演员和剧组人员那里,他们高兴得抱成一团了,但大家可以听到比蒂好像在说:“应该是爱玛?斯通。”而唐纳薇回应道:“什么?”当《爱乐之城》剧组上台领奖时,可以听到旁边的舞台管理人员说:“哦……哦!天啊!他拿错信封了!”
  • 新个税专项扣除细则来了 每年最高扣除15.44万
  • And while you are at it, don't forget to celebrate the imperfections. While on a 10-day trek in the Himalayas, I learned that imperfections are beautiful too. The rough edges of the mountains, the heavy hail storms in the middle of the afternoon, were "inconvenient" but added to the beauty of the trek. I am acutely aware now that in my pursuit of perfection at work, I have often failed to recognize that imperfections are also a core part of our identity that needs to be preserved and not always changed.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 野村:中国房地产库存处于健康水平 市场增长将放缓
  • Household substance abuse
  • 意大利Tassani将在中国设生产基地 推出艺术涂料和水性木器漆
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

北京土地市场成交2宗普通商品住宅用地

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 可穿戴市场“熄火” 智能家居未来命运如何?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 中山最牛违建:顶层“空中别墅” 加建80平方米
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

2.“老爹身材”受热捧

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

*Awards presented during the Creative Arts Emmy ceremony Sept. 10-11.
听起来像是泰勒斯威夫特,但事实上,却是她一直以来的竞争对手,凯迪派瑞。这主要归因为她的棱镜世界巡回演唱会。现在演唱会的热潮已归于平静,派瑞今年凭此吸入13.5千万美金。在我们评分期间的126场演出中,她平均每个城市赚得2百万美金,再加上与科蒂,克莱尔和封面女郎的合约,得到了她的总共收入。
狄娜莎(Tinashe)与德文戴·西尼斯(Devonté Hynes),《打赌》(Bet), RCA
It scares/intimidates people and they don't know better anyway.
Now, Curry and the Golden State Warriors are right road of adding another accomplishment.
银行业
这是2015年1月11日发布在伊斯兰主义社交网站上的视频截图,显示了一个自称为AmedyCoulibaly的男人,声称就是他在2015年1月9日杀死了犹太超市的四个人质。
The gig economy
《日落》
n. 插曲,一段情节,片段,轶事

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

欧司朗豪掷30亿欧元开拓新增长前景

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • The appointment was announced by Steven Ciobo, the Australian minister for trade, tourism and investment, on Feb 21. The Chairman of the China National Tourism Administration, Li Jinzao, was present.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The EU filed just 12 anti-dumping cases in 2015, two less than the year before.
  • 土地市场活跃 楼市出现分化
  • administration
  • 亿光李建南解读2015年中国LED行业五大发展趋势
  • 这封信件在十天以前神奇般的被寄到了加利福尼亚大学的宾夕法尼亚州分校,这所大学位于宾州的东北部。寄给Moore先生的这封信是1958年2月20日的信件,上面还写着“永远爱你的Vonnie”。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 京华时报:最受欢迎建材品牌
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The first thing you must understand about personality types is that they have nothing to do with genes. This means that if you have a Type D personality then this doesn't mean that you can't change it. Also, the quiz doesn't mean that the result of the quiz determines your destiny. According to psychology, any personality trait can be changed.
  • 林怡仲预测道,下半年A股IPO的数量或将维持与上半年相当,预计2016年全年A股IPO为120宗左右,融资规模在600-800亿元人民币左右。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

远洋北方区域9城战略版 百亿锁定石家庄

View All Footnotes